Saturday, January 10, 2015

Technical Questions

Q. What questions would you ask to help isolate a user’s problem?
A. This question is used by the hiring manger to assess your problem-solving abilities. The following represent some of the common questions that you would ask the end-user to help diagnose a situation:
  • When did the problem first start?
  • Has the system ever worked properly?
  • What was the last thing done to the system prior to the failure?
  • Is the issue intermittent or ongoing/constant?
  • Are there any error messages? If so, what are the specific error messages?
  • Has any new hardware been added to the system?
  • Has any new software been added to the system, including downloads from the Internet?
  • Has anything changed with the system (for example, has it been moved) since the issue presented itself?
  • Has anyone else had access to the system?
  • Are there any environmental factors that could be causing the issue?
  • Have you done any troubleshooting on the system on your own?
  • Have you checked all the cables/connections for a tight fit?
Q. What are the main differences between the following operating systems?
A. Unfortunately, most companies have not been able to standardize the operating systems used by users. It’s always critical that you know more than just the current version because there will always be a user who has a problem with an older version. By asking this question, the hiring manager is actually testing your knowledge of different operating systems that you may need to support. The following provides a concise summary of some of the major differences.
Windows 2000 and XP
Overall, XP is a minor update with Windows 2000 designed to get  Windows 2000 technology into the hands of consumers. The major changes include the following:
  • Device driver rollback
  • Remote control (single-user terminal services)
  • New Start menu, control panel, and user interface elements
  • Fast user switching
  • Encrypted file system support for redirected folders
  • Better support for roaming wireless networking
  • Enhanced policies
  • Credential Manager
  • Personal firewall
Q. What are typical virus sources and how do you prevent virus attacks?
A. This is virus protection 101 just to ensure that you understand the basics of protecting against viruses. Possible virus sources include e-mail attachments, Internet downloads, and infected floppy disks. To prevent virus infections:
  • Use anti-virus software.
  • Perform regular updates to the virus software definition files and scan engines. Verify updates have succeeded.
  • Perform regularly scheduled virus checks.
  • Configure software to check all files, not just program files.
  • Educate users on virus attacks, their consequences, and how to prevent them.
  • Know where all software came from.
  • Do regular backups.
  • Develop reporting mechanisms to inform server administrators of observed desktop infections and how these could impact the server environment (such as deletions or corruption of files on public shares, hidden payload files that might have been uploaded to servers, and so on).
Q. What are some of the guidelines you would recommend for implementing security at the user level?
A. Security is a major part of the desktop technician’s day-to-day responsibilities. As the closest point of contact to the end-users, technicians need to be savvy on the different methods for enforcing security. Some of the top techniques are included below.
Anti-virus software:
  • Ensure that all users install and regularly use anti-virus software on their PCs.
  • Instruct users to immediately notify the helpdesk when they suspect they’ve contracted a virus.
Password security:
  • Instruct users not to give out their passwords.
  • Instruct users not to write down their passwords.
  • Instruct users to make sure their password cannot be easily guessed by using a combination of alphanumeric characters, including special characters (~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) + = [ ] { } / ? < > , ; : \ | ` ’ ” .).
  • Instruct users to change their password if they think there is even a slight chance someone knows it.
  • Instruct users to ensure their password is at least eight characters long.
  • Instruct users not to use a variation of their user ID.
  • Regularly change passwords on Administrator accounts on PCs (NT, Windows 2000 and XP)
Desktop security:
  • Instruct users not to leave their workstation logged in overnight.
  • Instruct users to enable screen savers that automatically lock their PC when there is no activity on it for more than five minutes.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Computer Networking Interview Q & A 17 Dec. 2014

Define the terms Unicasting, Multicasting and Broadcasting?
If the message is sent from a source to a single destination node, it is called Unicasting.
If the message is sent to some subset of other nodes, it is called
If the message is sent to all the m nodes in the network it is called
What is Multiplexing?
Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.
List the layers of OSI
a. Physical Layer b. Data Link Layer c. Network Layer
d. Transport Layer e. Session Layer
f. Presentation Layer g. Application Layer
Which layers are network support layers?
a. Physical Layer
b. Data link Layer and c. Network Layers
Which layers are user support layers?
a. Session Layer
b. Presentation Layer and
c. Application Layer
Which layer links the network support layers and user support layers?
The Transport layer links the network support layers and user support layers.
What are the concerns of the Physical Layer?
Physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium.
a. Physical characteristics of interfaces and media 
b. Representation of bits
c. Data rate
d. Synchronization of bits e. Line configuration
f. Physical topology
g. Transmission mode
What are the responsibilities of Data Link Layer?
The Data Link Layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission
facility, to a reliable link and is responsible for node-node delivery
a. Framing
b. Physical Addressing 
c. Flow Control
d. Error Control
e. Access Control
What are the responsibilities of Network Layer?
The Network Layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet possibly across multiple networks (links).
a. Logical Addressin
b. Routing
What are the responsibilities of Transport Layer?
The Transport Layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message.
 a. Service-point Addressing
 b. Segmentation and reassembly
 c. Connection Control
 d. Flow Control e. Error Control
What are the responsibilities of Session Layer?
The Session layer is the network dialog Controller. It establishes, maintains and synchronizes the interaction between the communicating systems.
a. Dialog control
b. Synchronization
What are the responsibilities of Presentation Layer?
The Presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems.
a. Translation 
b. Encryption
c. Compression
What are the responsibilities of Application Layer?
The Application Layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, shared database management and other types of distributed information services.
a. Network virtual Terminal
b. File transfer, access and Management (FTAM)
c. Mail services
d. Directory Services
What are the two classes of hardware building blocks?
 Nodes and Links.
What are the different link types used to build a computer network?
a. Cables
b. Leased Lines

c. Last-Mile Link
d. Wireless Links
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