Friday, October 7, 2011

Protocols:

Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or "packets." TCP/IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS/NetBEUI (for LAN Manager and Windows NT networks) are the main types of network protocols in use today.

Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as "protocol independence,"

Some Important Protocols and their job:
Protocol Acronym Its Job
Point-To-Point TCP/IP The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for intranets using the internet
Transmission Control Protocol/internet Protocol TCP/IP The backbone protocol of the internet. Popular also for intranets using the internet
Internetwork Package Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange IPX/SPX This is a standard protocol for Novell Network Operating System
NetBIOS Extended User Interface NetBEUI This is a Microsoft protocol that doesn't support routing to other networks
File Transfer Protocol FTP Used to send and receive files from a remote host
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol HTTP Used for the web to send documents that are encoded in HTML.
Network File Services NFS Allows network nodes or workstations to access files and drives as if they were their own.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP Used to send Email over a network
Telnet   Used to connect to a host and emulate a terminal that the remote server can recognize

Introduction to TCP/IP Networks:

TCP/IP-based networks play an increasingly important role in computer networks. Perhaps one reason for their appeal is that they are based on an open specification that is not controlled by any vendor.

What Is TCP/IP?

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol. The term TCP/IP is not limited just to these two protocols, however. Frequently, the term TCP/IP is used to refer to a group of protocols related to the TCP and IP protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Terminal Emulation Protocol (TELNET), and so on.

The Origins of TCP/IP

In the late 1960s, DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency), in the United States, noticed that there was a rapid proliferation of computers in military communications. Computers, because they can be easily programmed, provide flexibility in achieving network functions that is not available with other types of communications equipment. The computers then used in military communications were manufactured by different vendors and were designed to interoperate with computers from that vendor only. Vendors used proprietary protocols in their communications equipment. The military had a multi vendor network but no common protocol to support the heterogeneous equipment from different vendors

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